Remote access for all: some resources

To support efforts to slow the spread of COVID-19, here are some resources to help ensure the accessibility of remote teaching, learning, and working. When moving to remote formats, we want to meet the needs of all participants, including those with disabilities, as we tackle this huge challenge together.

Remote access for all: some resources. Cartoon image shows people communicating remotely using laptops, phones, and tablets.

To slow the spread of COVID-19, many of us in the assistive technology field face the huge challenge of shifting basically everything we do to some sort of remote format. Maybe you work in a school district or university, and you need to ensure accessibility of remote teaching and learning for all students. Or you need to provide remote assistive technology services and support to clients, families, and caregivers. Or you just need to meet remotely with colleagues, quickly, easily, and accessibly. All of these situations require some sort of remote technology solution.

How do we ensure the accessibility of these remote solutions, so that they meet the needs of everyone involved, including those with disabilities?

This is a big question with no simple answer, but working together we have a chance at crafting effective solutions that provide remote access for all. In this post, I’ll share some resources that I hope will help as you tackle this unprecedented challenge.


I started looking for useful resources yesterday as I realized that my own skills at providing remote access for all are pretty limited. Sure, I’ve hosted and attended remote meetings, using tools like GoToMeeting, Zoom, and Google Hangouts Meet. And I’ve done quite a few remote presentations, usually using whatever tools the organizers need me to use. It’s amazing technology. But it’s never easy, and something almost always goes wrong. And it can be hard to give accessibility the priority it deserves. So I need to do better, not just because of COVID-19, but that certainly is a catalyst that’s exposed areas where I still have a lot of work to do.

These resources are mostly from the University of Michigan’s (U-M) ongoing work to deliver all classes online and from Mike Marotta’s Town Hall panel on COVID-19, School Closures and AT: What Do We Do? I’m extremely grateful for the outpouring of expertise and leadership by these folks. All of the resources are evolving and being updated frequently. And some of them are crowd-sourced, allowing you and all of us to help build solutions together.

Resource list

OK, here’s the list:

  1. U-M’s Center for Academic Innovation created Keep Teaching to support remote teaching, and the site is being updated frequently as new information and resources are developed. These are general guidelines, not necessarily focused on accessibility issues, but a useful introduction for universal best practices for all participants. The main page has links to sub-sections like Getting Started, Teaching Strategies, etc., each of which has very concrete and useful information, such as this on setting up a home studio for remote meetings.
  2. The Accessibility team at U-M has created a page on Access to Remote Instruction for Students and Faculty with Disabilities. This page has some great overall guidelines and principles for providing access to remote instruction, as well as links to additional resources. The principles hold for all types of online collaborative work, not just academic class meetings.
  3. The Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) is maintaining a resource list on higer education access in the time of coronavirus. It’s a compilation of information specific to accessibility, crowd-sourced from a wide range of universities and other IHE’s.
  4. Aimi Hamraie’s post on Accessible Teaching in the Time of COVID-19 is short and packed with good information. It’s well-organized and based on disability culture and community.
  5. Mike Marotta hosted a Town Hall webinar with a panel of AT experts, entitled COVID-19, School Closures, and AT: What Do We Do? You can view a recorded archive of the webinar. Also check out (and add to!) the crowd-sourced Google Document with ideas / strategies and questions regarding supporting students with disabilities in these challenging times. Go to:

Upcoming Twitter chats

At least two AT-related Twitter chats will focus on the topic of accessibility and remote learning this week. These are:

  • #PatinsIcam, Tuesday, March 17, 2020 at 8:30pm ET
  • #ATchat, Wednesday, March 18, 2020 at 8:00pm ET

To join the chat in real time, just go onto Twitter and search for #ATchat (or #PatinsIcam). Click on Latest and you will see the whole conversation unfold. You can click on the Tweet button to write a post of your own. Just use #ATchat in your post and you will be added to the conversation! (Thanks to Beth Poss for this succinct tutorial!)

If you’re not able to be on Twitter during the chat, you may be able to access an archive of the chat later. For #ATchat, at least, a wakelet link is usually posted to the QIAT listserv the next day.

Keep in touch

As someone mentioned in yesterday’s Town Hall, we’re asking people to take on a lot of new learning right now. And in stressful times, that’s a much tougher ask than it usually is. I hope you find these resources helpful, and that you’ll contribute your ideas as well, either here in the comments or in the crowd-sourced documents.

Working together, we can get through this and find solutions that support the needs of everyone involved. All the best to you, and keep in touch!

Accessible click and drag on the iPad

The latest iPad OS 13.3 allows you to perform an accessible drag with dwell selection using AssistiveTouch. And there are at least three other methods that might meet your needs for a more accessible drag. Here’s a step-by-step guide to go through each option and help you choose the one that’s best for you.

Accessible click and drag on the iPad. Image of an iPad with the words "accessible drag" drawn on the screen.

This post is inspired by a question that came in to the QIAT listserv. The student in question uses an external trackpad to access the iPad, with dwell selection instead of physical tapping. The question was how to do a click and drag with this setup, which is a task the student needs to do for completing assignments.

In this post, I’ll share four ways of doing a click and drag on the iPad, including a method that meets this student’s accessibility needs.


Click and drag is a basic action used to do things like: move an item to a new location, highlight a specific section of text, draw things like lines and shapes, and more. Now that the iPad supports the use of mice and other external pointing devices, users can do click and drag with their pointing devices, not just their fingers. This opens up the possibility for a more accessible drag action, if the usual finger method is difficult or impossible. But how exactly do you do it?

Let’s look at four different ways of doing an iPad click and drag with a mouse or other pointing device. We’ll go through each one with an eye toward the accessibility of each one for people with physical impairments.

My setup and the basic drag method

These methods will work with any pointing device that acts like a mouse, such as a trackpad or a trackball, whether connected via USB or Bluetooth. When I was testing out these methods, I used a regular USB mouse connected to my iPad Air 2, with a Lightning-USB adapter to connect the mouse. I’ll use the term mouse button or click to refer to the click action on any pointing device, like a single tap on a trackpad, or a button on a trackball.

My basic click and drag task for this post was to do freehand drawing within the Notes app. The iPad supports the “typical” drag method, where you hold down the mouse button while moving the mouse cursor at the same time. So to draw in Notes with the basic method, I just move the mouse cursor to where I want to start, then hold the mouse button down and move to draw.

Need for a more accessible drag

The basic method is fine for some people and some usage scenarios. But having to hold down the mouse button while you move the mouse can be inconvenient, tiring, or impossible, especially if you have any upper extremity impairments. A more accessible drag action would let us separate the mouse button hold from the cursor movement, so we wouldn’t have to do both at the same time.

One general way to do this is to tell the iPad that we want to start a drag, and have the iPad virtually hold down the mouse button for us. Then we’d just move the mouse to accomplish the drag. We’d need a way to tell the iPad when we are done with the drag, so that it can “release” the mouse button. The Drag Lock method and the Hold and Drag method below both use this approach, in slightly different ways. A second general way to separate the button hold from the cursor movement is to use a physical button, as in the latching button method below.

Drag Lock method

The Drag Lock method allows you to activate a drag lock so that you can drag without having to hold down the mouse button at the same time. Drag Lock is a setting within AssistiveTouch, an accessibility feature built-in to iPadOS. You need to set it up before using it.

To set up Drag Lock:

  1. Turn on AssistiveTouch. Settings > Accessibility > Touch > AssistiveTouch.
  2. Turn on Drag Lock, within the AssistiveTouch settings (near the bottom of the page).

To use Drag Lock:

  1. For a regular click (no dragging), click the mouse button briefly.
  2. To activate a drag lock, press and hold for about a second, until you hear a beep to indicate that drag has turned on. When you hear the beep, release the mouse button.
  3. Move the mouse to accomplish your drag. Drag mode should be locked (as if you are holding the mouse button down).
  4. Press briefly to release the drag lock. Now the mouse will function as usual.

Thanks to Dave Gilbert of Pretorian UK for clarifying exactly how Drag Lock works — it’s not immediately obvious and not documented anywhere that I could find.

See this video for how Drag Lock works:

So using Drag Lock depends on the user being able to press and hold with enough control to: activate the drag as desired (hold for about 1 second) and not activate the drag when not desired (hold for less than 1 second for a regular tap). Finessing the mouse button like this is not easy or possible for some users, so let’s look at a couple of other options.

Dwell selection

First, a bit of background on dwell selection. Dwell selection allows you to execute an action, like a tap, by holding the mouse cursor still for a settable amount of time. It’s built-in to iPadOS. To use it, turn on Dwell Control within the AssistiveTouch settings. This can be a good alternative to physically pressing the mouse button, but you can’t use dwell selection to use the Drag Lock feature described above. That’s because there’s no way to create a quick-press vs. a press-for-1-second using dwell.

That’s the problem faced by the student in the original QIAT post, who uses dwell selection for clicks and an external trackpad for cursor movement. Windows and macOS have long had a solution to this problem, but there hasn’t been a built-in iPad solution until very recently. With the release of iPadOS 13.3, we now have a Hold and Drag action — let’s see how that works.

Hold and Drag action method

iPadOS 13.3 now includes a Hold and Drag action within the AssistiveTouch menu (on the second level, under Custom). So when you use AssistiveTouch, this Hold and Drag action is automatically available to you. (I haven’t found any documentation on this action, but it is there.)

If you are using dwell selection, here’s how you can use Hold and Drag to execute a drag action:

  1. Select Hold and Drag from AssistiveTouch menu (requires 3 dwells, by default: choose AssistiveTouch menu, choose Custom, choose Hold and Drag).
  2. Dwell on the drag starting point
  3. Drag as desired by moving the mouse cursor
  4. Dwell on the end point to release the drag

This does take a total of 5 dwells, which could be a bit time-consuming depending on your dwell time, but I think it is the only method that works with dwell selection. See this video for how the Hold and Drag action works:

The Hold and Drag action also works with regular physical button presses, offering an alternative to the Drag Lock feature, for those who prefer this method.

If you like the Hold and Drag action, you can put it on the top level of the AssistiveTouch menu, thus saving one selection for every drag. This will displace an existing top-level action if you already have 8 actions on the top level, but it may be worth it if there is an action you don’t use all that much.

Latching button method

OK, so far we’ve reviewed 3 methods of dragging on the iPad: the usual hold-the-button-down way, and two methods within AssistiveTouch — the Drag Lock feature, and the Hold and Drag action. A fourth method is to use a latching physical button dedicated to the drag function. Some accessible pointing devices like trackballs and joysticks have a drag button built-in, such as those produced by Pretorian Technologies. Some of these also allow you to connect a switch of your own choosing to serve as the drag button. You’d want to make sure that the pointing device itself is a good fit for your needs, for cursor movement and other features.

To drag using the latching button method:

  1. Click the dedicated drag button.
  2. Move the mouse cursor to accomplish the drag.
  3. Click the drag button again to release the drag.

So this method does require a physical button press (rather than a dwell selection). In that sense it is very similar to the built-in Drag Lock feature, with the important difference that it uses a button devoted to the drag action, so it does not require a timed press-release the way the Drag Lock feature does. Compared to the Hold and Drag action method, the latching button method may be more efficient, since you do not have to first dig into the AssistiveTouch menu to select the Hold and Drag action before executing your drag.

Another way to provide a dedicated drag latching button is to use something like the Ablenet Dual Switch Latch & Timer. This requires some extra hardware and interface cabling, but I’ll mention it in case it sparks a useful solution for someone with unique needs. (Feel free to comment below if you’d like more details about this option.)

Which method should I use?

Here are some general guidelines for choosing each method of click and drag, in rough order of consideration:

  1. Basic – consider if you have no trouble holding down the mouse button while moving the mouse cursor
  2. Drag Lock – if you have no trouble producing a quick-click vs a 1-second-click with the button on your pointing device
  3. Hold and Drag action – if you use dwell selection successfully (and have trouble with physical button pressing)
  4. Latching button – if it is easy to physically press the drag button. For buttons built-in to the pointing device, make sure you also like that pointing device for its cursor movement and other features. If using as a separate switch, make sure you are OK with the cabling and positioning.

Feel free to comment below (or email me at to discuss details about how these methods might meet particular needs.

It is amazing how much there can be to say about one seemingly simple action (drag) on one platform (iPad).

What methods have you tried???

In-person training improves assistive technology outcomes

In a recent research study, people who received in-person training from an occupational therapist had significantly better outcomes with their computer assistive technology, as compared to people who used a home-study program or those who received no training at all. Read on for a summary of this 2019 study from France.

In-person training improves assistive technology outcomes. Two images: one showing an occupational therapist and a person with a spinal cord injury working together. The other shows a close-up of a person typing using a typing splint.
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How to freehand draw using iOS Switch Control

iOS Switch Control allows you to freehand draw using a single switch on your iPad or iPhone. Here’s a step-by-step guide to get you started.

Photo of iPad, a yellow switch, and Tapio switch interface, with text saying How to freehand draw using iOS Switch Control
iOS Switch Control lets you control your iPad or iPhone using a single switch or multiple switches. So it can be a powerful accommodation allowing people with severe motor impairments to fully access any iOS device.

Switch Control is most often used for entering text and tapping on buttons and icons. But what about freehand drawing? There’s a lot less information out there on how to do that.

This post shows you how to get started with freehand drawing using iOS Switch Control. Read on for step-by-step instructions that show you how to draw a line of any length and in any location.

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A problem with two-switch scanning in iOS 13 and how to fix it

After upgrading my iPad to iOS 13, my setup for two-switch scanning in Switch Control stopped working. Here’s what happened, and how I fixed it.

Picture of an iPad with two switches connected via a Tapio interface.  Caption rades A problem with 2-switch scanning in iOS 13 and how to fix it.


I recently ran into an unexpected problem getting my external switches to work when using two-switch scanning with iPad Switch Control. After wrestling with the problem and eventually fixing it (or at least finding a workaround), I thought I’d share what I learned in case it can save somebody else some time.

Here’s a quick bottom-line synopsis: If you are using a Tapio interface for two-switch input with an iPad, set your Tapio to generate 1 and 2 for outputs, rather than the Space and Enter default outputs.

Read on for more details on the problem and exactly how to implement this solution.

Continue reading “A problem with two-switch scanning in iOS 13 and how to fix it”

Your Guide to 10+ One-hand Typing Options

Here’s a guide to currently available methods and devices for one-hand typing. If you need to type with one hand due to a limb difference, stroke, or other motor impairment, this guide will help you sort through your options for productive typing.

One-handed typing: What's available?  Pictures show 3 example options -- one-hand touch typing, tapping codes on touchscreen, and a chorded keyboard in the palm

This post focuses on options for people who need to type using the fingers of a single hand, possibly with a bit of help from the other hand but often completely solo. Depending on your specific needs, it might work well to use a standard physical keyboard with one hand, but you might want to consider various options such as one-handed techniques, alternative keyboard layouts, or novel methods of text input. The key is to make an informed choice to make sure your one-hand typing method truly meets your needs. In our last post, we described 12 considerations to think about when choosing a one-hand typing method. Here, we examine a variety of specific one-hand typing options that are available and see how they stack up on those considerations.

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12 considerations for choosing a one-handed typing method

One-handed typing can be a useful option if you have a disability involving one of your hands, and there are a surprising number of options for typing with one hand. Here are some key issues to consider when choosing a one-handed typing method.

One-handed typing: 12 key considerations. Photo of someone typing with their right hand on a keyboard.

What do we mean by one-handed typing?

At the risk of stating the obvious, we’re talking about typing using the fingers of a single hand, possibly with a bit of help from the other hand but often completely solo. The most basic one-handed typing method is to use a standard physical keyboard with one hand instead of two, requiring more movement of the typing hand and arm, and reducing opportunities to touch-type. Because of these limitations, a number of other options for one-handed typing have emerged over the years.

This post was inspired by a question to the QIAT listserv, asking about typing options for a middle school student born with only one hand. You might benefit from a one-handed typing method if one of your hands functions pretty well but the other has limitations, perhaps due to a stroke. You might also benefit if you need to avoid using one of your hands due to repetitive stress injury or pain, or if you are in a hands-busy environment where one hand just isn’t available for regular touch typing.

By choosing the one-handed typing method that best meets your needs, you can have an efficient and comfortable way to enter text using only one hand. Read on for some key considerations that will help you make a good choice.

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Compass version 3.0 released

KPR has released Compass version 3.0, which offers better compatibility with speech recognition input. Get your free trial and take the guesswork out of assistive technology assessments.

Compass version 3.0 released
We’ve updated Compass, KPR’s software for access assessments. If you’ve had any difficulties using speech recognition with Compass in the past, give this new version a try. And if you’ve never tried Compass before, now is a great time!

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